It should be noted that sequence of execution may be determined even when lines of the text and signature (handwritten notation) do not intersect. * At present, the ink aging methods that analyze ink dye components are considered unreliable by the overwhelming majority of ink dating specialists and forensic document examiners.For example, a forensic document examiner can determine whether the stray toner particles (they are present on any laser-printed and photocopied documents but invisible to the naked eye) are below or above ballpoint pen ink writing (see Aginsky, V. This information can help determine the number of different writing instruments used to prepare a given entry or the relative age of an entry in comparison with other writings.Electrostatic Detection Apparatus is a methodology used to detect and visualize the indented impressions present on a page of paper.The validity of documentary evidence is of paramount interest in many different types of litigation.The medical record which is found to contain additions or interlineations can challenge the veracity of witnesses.Its uses range from differentiation of toner samples, which indicates the use of multiple xerographic machines, to the detection of specific inorganic components in paper or pencil, which would aid in the determination of common origin.The Atomic Force Microscopy allows for discrimination of surface features at the atomic level.
For example, if transfers of ink are found on several pages of a diary, it indicates that the corresponding entries on the diary were made in a single sitting, not over a longer period as suggested by the dates.
Scanning Electron Microscope provides the capabilities of increased magnification for analysis of particulate evidence, paper fibers or the intersection of written lines to determine sequence of preparation.
The increased capability of x-ray analysis allows for characterization of a variety of evidence including paper, ink, toner and pencil.
These impressions are the result of the preparation of writing on a document while in contact with the examined page of paper.
The content of indented impressions and the identity of their source can allow for the determination of the sequence of preparation of different documents.
Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Aginsky is the author of two ink aging methods that analyze ink volatile components (not ink dye components*) and that have been tested and applied to actual cases by multiple forensic laboratories.